Selasa, 10 September 2013



1)     Give a brief explanations about their policy and invention for each oh them:

Herman William Daendels
Thomas Stamford Raffles
 Van Den Bosch
Conrad Theodore van Deventer
Van der Cappellen
Willem Janssen

2)     Use picture in your explanations!


1. Herman Wiliam Daendels
Herman William Dendels, the Dutch government sold Gubernemen lands to private parties. At first he sold the lands confiscated from the royal offerings Jasinga ground. Later, he sold land area of ​​about Batavia, which is usually called Ommelandene. This policy was taken after the Indonesian government Daendels in financial difficulties due to war against the British led coalition troops. Dutch financial resources until the year 1830 is the coffee plantations, the salt monopoly, monopoly spices, and land tax Raffles heritage. Van den Bosch propose a policy called Cultuurstelsel or Forced Land Systems. While the main points of the policy is that under the agreement ni, one-fifth of the population of Indonesia provide land for planting crops set Gubernemen. Residents who do not have the required ground work for the government for 66 days in a year. 

2. Thomas Stamford Raffles
In the reign of Thomas Stamford Raffles, the British colonial government to implement economic policy based on liberal principles. He adopted the British economic policies imposed on India. The policy, among others Landrent System. The person who owns the land from the government and the tenant must pay the rent tax called ground rent. Raffles set the estate tax at 2/5 harvest, may be paid with cash crops or money. Given that the land tax, abolished Kerja Rodi. This is due to Kerja Rodi was arbitrary and not making real money.

3. Van Den Bosch                   
      When Van Den Bosch Dutch government holding, he implemented policies Tanam Paksa for Indonesian people. Dutch colonial rule lasted until the 1900s                                        

4.Van der Cappellen
   Van der Capellen pemerintahnnya of the year during 1817 -1830 , applying liberal political and economic policies . By conservatives as economic hardship that befell the Netherlands , the policy of liberal economic policy has failed . During its development , the liberals and conservatives dominate successive parliaments and governments . These circumstances affect the political and economic policy in Indonesia as a colony also turns to follow the existing policy in the Netherlands .
In the Netherlands alone there are 2 camps are arguing :

   1 . Liberal stronghold

Have confidence that the colonies would be profitable for the Dutch economic affairs if left entirely to the private sector , without government interference . Colonial government only taxes and as a supervisor .

   2 . Conservative stronghold

Believes that the colonies would benefit the Dutch economy if affairs are handled directly by the government . Indonesia is not yet ready to implement liberal economic policies .

           Failure van der Capellen dropped liberals , in parliament and government dominated by conservatives . At the time of the Governor -General van den Bosch , implement conservative economic policies and politics in Indonesia. In 1830 began to apply the rules of peonage ( forced labor ) who disebur Cultuurstelsel . Cultuurstelsel in English is the Cultivation System, which has the meaning of cropping systems . But in Indonesia Cultuurstelsel better known as cultivation . This stands to reason as it is interpreted in practice because people are forced to work and grow crops without being obliged to return . Crop plants are required to conduct trade internationally as coffee , tea , pepper , quinine and tobacco .
            Cultuurstelsel treated with the aim to earn as much as possible in a relatively short time . With the expectation that the debts of the Netherlands in the face of Napoleon's war and faced resistance kingdoms in Indonesia can be overcome . Cultuurstelsel main points include :

   1 . People are obliged to prepare a fifth of arable land required for crops planted .
   2 . Cropland compulsory tax-free , because the results are paid as taxes .
   3 . Any excess of the amount of tax yields will be refunded .
   4 . Effort and time required for the plants mandatory , should not exceed the time required to grow rice .
   5 . The people who do not have the required ground work for 66 days in a year in     garden or government -owned factories .
   6 . If there is damage or crop failure is the responsibility of the government .
   7 . Implementation left entirely to the cultivation of the native rulers ( village chief ) .

If you look at the points Cultuurstelsel when done properly is a good rule . However, in practice much of the specifics or in other words a deviation occurs . Deviations , among others :

   1 . Land should be handed over the masses tend to exceed the provisions fifth , intended as a    backup if the results are less favorable .
   2 . Land planted with crops shall remain withdrawn tax .
   3 . The people who do not have a claim turns out to work in factories or plantations more than       66 days or fifth year .
   4 . Excess of the amount of tax yields were not returned .
   5 . In the event of crop failure turned out to be borne by farmers .

This deviation occurs because the native rulers ( village head ) tempted by the lure of the Dutch system cultuur procenten apply .
Cultuur Procenten is :
Gifts or gratuities from the government for implementing cultivation ( native rulers , village heads ) who can submit harvest exceeds the provisions are applied in a timely manner .

This mebuat native rulers intensified push people to work extra hard , no matter the rules or the points in the culture system . Gifts or gratuities are the main objectives in addition to praise from the Dutch Government . Poverty and suffering of the people who do not care about getting worse . Areas that suffer a lot of them :

   1 . Sala in the valley area which covers an area of Surakarta , Yogyakarta and Madiun .
   2 . In the area of 
​​the Brantas valley especially in Kediri , Surabaya and Besuki ( Eastbourne ) .
   3 . In Tuban and Jepara port area .
   4 . In the Priangan .
   5 . In West Sumatra , especially since the 1840s .

    Cultivation Thanks to that, between the years 1830 - 1870 ( in 40 years ) , Government of the Netherlands to benefit 823 million guilders . With that money , the Dutch East Indies government treasury can be fully recharged again , only about 33 million guilders . The rest is used to build railroads and government buildings in the Netherlands .

5.Willem Janssen
 Governor general of the Dutch East Indies were only replacements Daendels briefly in power,one year (1881). He is a former governor colong Cape (South Africa). Janssens when Englandbegan to threaten the ruling powerHer priority is to deal with attacks that have been urgedBritain and instead continue the development that has been initiated Daendels palace for his residence.

On August 1811 the UK really attack led Batavia with Lieutenant General Sir SamuelAuchmuty so Dutch-French troops had to retreat to Mesteer CornelisBritish forces after abattle victory at Meester Cornelis Janssens and troops surrendered (August 26, 1811). Itmarked the beginning of the 1811-1816 period of British colonialism under Thomas StamfordRaffles.

6. Conrad Theodore van Deventer
   Theodore van Deventer (1857-1915) is known as a Dutch jurist and also figure the Ethical Policy . He's at a young age went to the Dutch East Indies . In ten years , Deventer has become rich , because private plantation estates and airline emerging BPM oil when it requires a lot of advisory services hukum.Pada a letter dated 30 April 1886 addressed to his parents , Deventer suggests the need for a more humane act for natives would fear for Spain experienced bankruptcy due to mismanagement of the colony .
Then in 1899 Deventer wrote in the magazine De Gids ( Guide ) , entitled Een Eereschuld ( debt of honor ) . Understanding the substasial Eereschuld is " honor debts to be paid , even if not in demand upfront judge " . It consists of concrete figures on the Dutch public that explains how they became prosperous and safe country ( the railways, dams , etc. ) is the result of colonization which comes from the Dutch colonies in the East Indies ( "Indonesia " ) , while the Indian Netherlands when it was poor and backward . So it is appropriate if such property is returned .
As a member of the Dutch Parliament Deventer , he received a ministerial duty of the colonies Idenburg to prepare a report on the economic situation of indigenous people in Java and Madura . Within a year , successfully complete the task Deventer (1904 ) . With open Deventer revealed a sad state , then the firm has blamed government policy .
Around the mid -19th century began to appear in the Dutch humanist movement spearheaded by , among others, Conrad Theodore van Deventer ( 1857-1915 ) . This movement emerged after news of the Dutch East Indies colonial behavior , specifically the practice of oppression . The motion judge that the Dutch have owed 
​​much to the Dutch East Indies . The Netherlands has taken many of the colonies , practically without giving anything . This motion requires a favorable change in the form of unilateral relationship into a mutually beneficial relationship ( Symbiosis mutualism ) .
The people who belong to groups such as other humanitarian : Walter Baron Van Hoevel , Fransen Van De Futte , also a Prime Minister Torbeck came forward to defend the interests of the Indonesian people . At that time considered to be the most successful figures change with the Dutch people's opinion a work of writing is " Douwes Dekker " with the pseudonym " Multatuli " . Who managed to write a work book called " Max Havelaar " .
Dutch Ethical Policy was initially formulated raises when the pro and cons , both among intellectuals , politicians and clergy ( the church ) in the Netherlands . There are some who oppose ( the levels are quite loud ) in the Dutch Parliament , but on the other hand there are supporting this program that they deem as ' humane ' or even as ' moral obligation ' to the people of Indonesia . Many people connect the new policy is the Dutch political thought and writings tulsian Van Deventer published some time earlier , so Van Deventer was then known as the originator of this ethical politics .
Ethical elaboration by Van Deventer was conceived in the form of irrigation, education and emigration . The support is initially emerged from the Dutch capitalists and industrialists who essentially wants to market its industry while economic betterment of the people first and the second Indonesia.Kebijakan abused by the Dutch government to construct irrigation for Dutch plantations and emigration is done by moving the population to Dutch plantation area to be used as forced labor . Only meaningful education for Indonesia .
Social improvement is visible starting addressed , among others, in terms of education . Why is this done ? Therefore , the problem of education ( education ) hardly explored and was deliberately not dealt before the Ethical Policy was initiated . This is reflected in the writings of Van Deventer in the magazine De Gids ( 1908 ) as follows : " Until recent times , most of us think of education no intelligence and refinement of intellect pekeerti Bumiputera nation . Originally paid tax , duty levy and planting done , not the origin of life of the people miserable , memadailah . Then the fun of the government . "
In 1905 , an election year in the Netherlands , Van Deventer and his friends to win the Dutch Parliament , which because they are key actors in the formation of the cabinet . A member of the Liberal Democrats , D. Fock , became Minister of Colonies . He's willing to promote and expand the education of the natives . This effort supported by Snouck suggestions and concepts , a professor indolog in Leiden ( 1906 ) who suggested that the Dutch colonial government to provide education to the indigenous elite in the best tradition of the West who will be expected to be an important figure in the widely influential Indonesian society .
In keeping with the spirit of the Ethical Policy , the Dutch colonial government expanded the number of schools . Ethical political influence in the field of teaching and education all play an important role in the development and expansion of education and teaching in the Dutch East Indies . One of a group of highly ethical instrumental in this field is Mr . J.H. Abendanon (1852-1925) that the Minister of Culture , Religion , and Crafts for five years ( 1900-1905 ) . Since 1900 these schools stand , both for the aristocracy and the common people are almost evenly distributed in these areas .
 In 1903 started grammar school founded called Volk School ( village ) with a 3-year study period was followed denmgan program Vervolg School ( Secondary School ) with a 2-year study period . With the previous school like this and then proceed to subsequent years , for example , called Meer Uitgebreid Leger Onderwijs ( MULO ) , which is a school with a junior high education level, level in the Dutch period and program Algemeene Middelbare School ( AMS ) which is equivalent to high school education level .
Although it seems fairly well established objective forms of schooling on top , but in practice , even if not directly , there is a tendency discriminatory . The trend was seen in the case of school children how to filter . The trick is to impose school fees are quite expensive , and are often preferred for families who have blue blood ancestry ( royal blood , royal blood ) or from among the " gentry " ( pangreh civil or an employee in the office of the Dutch government ) . Therefore , for the community down , then only from members of the community or the rich who are able to send their children to a high enough level of education . For community members who are less poor dispossessed or forced not to put their children to school , or at least forced to take other alternatives , for example, put their children into boarding school .
One thing that is undeniable is that the aim of the school is conducted in the Netherlands is not purely merely to empower public education , but rather to generate power bureaucrats ( in accordance with the level of education ) to be recruited in technical positions in the colonial administration Netherlands . For example , since 1864 the Dutch had introduced a test program called Klein Ambtenaars ' Examen , which is a program service exam that must be taken in order to lower a person can be appointed as a government employee . Therefore , it seems clear that a program to create low-level bureaucrats are quite prominent , especially after the year 1900 the school introduced Opleiding School voor Inlandsche Ambtenaren ( OSVIA ) , which is a school that is prepared to be public servants for the indigenous community . Thus there is a strong impression that the educational activities is to smooth the economic and political Netherlands .
Implementation of ethical policy not without criticism . Indo circles , which socially are second class citizens but legally including Europeans feel left out . Among them there is dissatisfaction because of the construction of educational institutions simply addressed to the natives ( exclusive ) . Consequently , the mix can not go to that place , while the choice for them for higher education should go to Europe , which are very costly

7. Multatuli
MAX - Havelaar

            Multatuli is the pseudonym of Edward Douwes Dekker , born in 1820 in Amsterdam . He was raised in a Protestant family of simple , where it causes a lot of trouble because the character is restless and difficult . Because his parents wanted him to be a priest , then in 1832 he entered the school called Latijnse School ( Latin School ) , where he failed to finish school . Somehow some tender then he worked at a trading office in Amsterdam but it failed too .
            The hope of a new opportunity in the colonies , at the age of 18 he sailed to the Dutch East Indies with his father . He then worked in the Netherlands , namely the Financial Supervisory Board in Batavia , it turns out he was at his job . Dekker associated with a Catholic girl named Caroline Versteegh , but hubungnnya foundered because Dekker is not good at spending money.
Max Havelaar Multatuli work is a novel anti-colonial bercitra . Novel Max Havelaar is very popular among intellectuals and figures of Indonesian independence movement before the second world war . Surprisingly , the literature has been translated into various languages 
​​, the new edition published in Indonesian in 1972 , translated by HB Jassin writers . Max Havelaar and currently can be found in the new edition is the result of a translation of Andi Tenri W.
This book was written in the 1859 season by Multatuli in a simple guesthouse in Belgium . Contains sharp criticism on the ideology of colonialism . This book opens the eyes of the world , and how cruel pangs of a sense of oppression .

            Max Havelaar 's book is " singing " aka Multatuli Douwes Dekker as seen inequalities Dutch government against the people in the colony . Douwes Dekker had controleur positions ( top Dutch civil servants ) in Natal , North Sumatra , and then transferred to Padang , West Sumatra , Rangkas Bitung , Lebak , Banten as well . He always opposed the policy of his superiors who are always detrimental to the natives .
During a stint as a government stooge Netherlands , Douwes Dekker always strongly rejected the model of the Dutch government . Who became the starting point of criticism and opposition , because of injustice and deprivation that made 
​​the Netherlands . Douwes Dekker sympathize with the indigenous people of the persecuted and oppressed .
Douwes Dekker often see the judicial process that cheating and other cheating also carried out by the Dutch government which is clearly detrimental to the population . Various dibeberkannya case , for example , the case of an adopted child Pamaga Sutan Salim is accused of trying to kill my master and controleur Dutch Christmas at Christmas .
Because of his persistence to defend the natives , Douwes Dekker never suspended . In fact , the more painful heart , Douwes Dekker wages paid only half of it . As a result of this resistance in 1856 Douwes Dekker was dismissed from his post . Even the Dutch government had demanded Douwes Dekker to court .
After losing the case , Douwes Dekker was sent back to Europe . But the spirit of stiff resistance and rebellion does unflagging . The Dutch government can not remove the " ideology " Multatuli . By renting a modest apartment in Belgium began to fight .

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